Crowdsourcing is becoming more popular with both organizations and companies since the concept’s introduction in 2006, and has been adopted by companies who are using this new production model to improve their production capacity while keeping costs low. The web-based business model, uses an open call format to reach a wide network of people willing to volunteer their services for free or for a limited reward, for any activity including translation. The application of translation crowdsourcing models has opened the door for increased demand of multilingual content.
“…the act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people in the form of an open call”.
Crowdsourcing costs equate to approx. 20% of a professional translation. Language Service Providers (LSPs) like Gengo and Moravia have realised the potential of crowdsourcing as part of a viable production model, which they are combining with professional translators and Machine Translation.
The crowdsourcing model is an effective method for translating the surge in User Generate Content (UGC). Erratic fluctuations in demand need a dynamic, flexible and scalable model. Crowdsourcing is definitely a feasible production model for translation services, but it still faces some considerable challenges.
- No specialist knowledge – crowdsourcing is difficult for technical texts that require specialised knowledge. It often involves breaking down a text to be translated into smaller sections to be sent to each volunteer. A volunteer may not be qualified in the domain area of expertise and so they end up translating small sections text, out of context, with limited subject knowledge which leads to lower quality or mistranslations.
- Quality – translation quality is difficult to manage, and is dependent on the type of translation. There have been some innovative suggestions for measuring quality, including evaluation metrics such as BLEU and Meteor, but these are costly and time consuming to implement and need a reference translation or ‘gold standard’ to benchmark against.
- Security – crowd management can be a difficult task and the moderator must be able to vet participants and make sure that they follow the privacy rules associated with the platform. Sensitive information that requires translation should not be released to volunteers.
- Emotional attachment – humans can become emotionally attached to their translations.
- Terminology and writing style inconsistency – when the project is divided amongst a number of volunteers, the final version’s style needs to be edited and checked for inconsistencies.
- Motivation – decisions on how to motivate volunteers and keep them motivated can be an ongoing challenge for moderators.
Improvements in the quality of Machine Translation have had an influence on crowdsourcing popularity and the majority of MT post-editing and proofreading tasks fit into crowdsourcing models nicely. Content can be classified into ‘find-fix-verify’ phases and distributed easily among volunteers.
There are some advantages to be gained when pairing MT technology and collaborative crowdsourcing.
Machine Translation will have a pivotal role to play within new translation models, which focus on translating large volumes of data in cost-effective and powerful production models. Merging both Machine Translation and crowdsourcing tasks will create not only fit-for-purpose, but also high quality translations.
- Quality – as the overall quality of Machine Translation output improves, it is easier for crowdsourcing volunteers with less experience to generate better quality translations. This will in turn increase the demand for crowdsourcing models to be used within LSPs and organizations. MT quality metrics will also make post-editing tasks more straightforward and easier to delegate among volunteers based on their experience.
- Training data – word alignment and engine evaluations can be done through crowd computing, and parallel corpora created by volunteers can be used to train and/or retrain existing SMT engines.
- Security – customized Machine Translation engines are more secure when dealing with sensitive product or client information. General or publicly available information is more suited to crowdsourcing.
- Terminology and writing style consistency – writing style and terminology can be controlled and updated through a straightforward process when using MT. This avoids the idiosyncrasies of volunteer writing styles. There is no risk of translator bias when using Machine Translation.
- Speed – Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) engines can process translations quickly and efficiently. When there is a need for a high volume of content to be translated within a short period of time it is better to use Machine Translation. Output is guaranteed within a designated time and crowdsourcing post-editing tasks speeds up the production process before final checks are carried out by experienced translators or post-editors.
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